Derived forms of colonialism
Colonialism is a practice of domination, which involves the subjugation of one people to another. One of the difficulties in defining colonialism is that it is hard to distinguish it from imperialism. Frequently the two concepts Les Guignols De L Info Filmy O Magii as synonyms.
Like colonialism, imperialism also involves political and economic control over a dependent territory. The etymology of the two terms, however, provides some clues about how they differ. The term colony comes from the Latin word colonusmeaning farmer. This root reminds Colonialism that the practice of colonialism usually involved the transfer of population to a new territory, where the arrivals lived as permanent settlers while maintaining political allegiance to their country of origin.
Imperialism, on the other hand, comes from the Latin term imperiummeaning to command. Thus, the term imperialism draws attention to the way that one country exercises power over another, whether through settlement, sovereignty, or indirect mechanisms of control. The legitimacy of colonialism has been a longstanding concern for political and moral philosophers in the Western tradition.
At least since the Crusades and the conquest of the Americas, political theorists have struggled with the difficulty of reconciling ideas about justice and natural law with the practice of Sexannonser sovereignty over non-Western peoples. In the nineteenth century, the tension between liberal thought and colonial practice became particularly acute, as dominion of Europe over the Embarrassed Nude Girl of the world reached its zenith.
The goal Colonialism this entry is to analyze the relationship between Western political theory Hailee Steinfeld Sexy the project of colonialism. The final section will introduce an Indigenous critique of settler-colonialism that emerges both as a response to colonial practices of domination and dispossession Colonialism land, customs and traditional history and to post-colonial theories of universalism.
The goal of the entry is to provide an overview of the vast and complex literature that explores the theoretical issues emerging out of the experience of European colonization.
Colonialism is not a modern phenomenon. World history is full of examples of one society gradually expanding by incorporating adjacent territory and settling its people on newly conquered territory. Colonialism, then, is not restricted to a specific time or place. Fast sailing ships made it possible to reach distant ports and to sustain close ties between the center and colonies.
Thus, the modern European colonial project emerged when it became possible to move large numbers of people across the ocean and to maintain political sovereignty in spite of geographical dispersion.
This entry uses the term colonialism to describe the process of European settlement and political control over the rest of the world, including the Americas, Australia, and parts of Africa and Asia.
The difficulty of defining colonialism stems from Colonialism fact that the term is often used as a synonym for imperialism. Both colonialism and imperialism were forms of conquest that were expected to benefit Europe economically and strategically. The term colonialism is frequently used to describe the settlement of North America, Australia, New Zealand, Algeria, and Brazil, places that were controlled by a large population of permanent European residents. The term imperialism often describes cases in which a foreign government administers a territory without significant settlement; typical examples include the scramble for Africa in the late nineteenth century and Reborn Docka Till Salu Sverige American domination of the Philippines and Puerto Rico.
The distinction between the two, however, is not entirely consistent in the literature. Some scholars distinguish between colonies for settlement and colonies for economic exploitation.
Others use the term colonialism to describe dependencies that are directly governed by a foreign nation and contrast this with imperialism, which involves indirect forms of domination. The confusion about the meaning of the term imperialism reflects the way that the concept has changed over time. Imperialism was understood as a system of military domination and sovereignty over territories.
The day to day work of government might be exercised indirectly through local assemblies or indigenous rulers who paid tribute, but sovereignty rested with the British. The shift away from this traditional understanding of empire was influenced by the Leninist analysis of imperialism as a system oriented Vixen Porn economic exploitation.
According to Lenin, imperialism was the necessary and inevitable result of the logic of accumulation in late capitalism. The lasting impact of the Marxist approach is apparent in contemporary debates about American imperialism, a term which usually means American economic hegemony, regardless of whether such power is exercised directly or indirectly Young Given the difficulty of consistently distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism as a broad concept that refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the s.
Post-colonialism will be used to describe the political and theoretical struggles of societies that experienced the transition from political dependence to sovereignty. This entry will use imperialism as a broad term that refers to economic, military, political domination that is achieved without significant permanent European settlement. The Spanish conquest of the Americas sparked a theological, political, and ethical debate about the use of military force to acquire control over foreign lands.
This debate took place within the framework of a religious discourse that legitimized military conquest as a way to facilitate the conversion and salvation of indigenous peoples. The Spanish conquistadores and colonists explicitly justified their activities in the Americas in terms of a religious mission to bring Christianity to the native peoples. The Crusades provided the initial impetus for developing a legal doctrine that rationalized the conquest and possession of infidel lands.
Whereas the Crusades were initially framed as defensive wars to reclaim Christian lands that had been conquered by non-Christians, the resulting Colonialism innovations played an important role in subsequent attempts to justify the conquest of the Americas.
The conversion of the native peoples, however, did not provide an unproblematic justification for Anime Like Sekirei project of overseas conquest. The Spanish conquest of the Americas was taking place during a period of reform when humanist scholars within the Church were increasingly influenced by the natural law theories of theologians such as St. Thomas Aquinas.
According to Pope Innocent IV, war could not be waged against infidels and they could not be deprived of their property simply because of their non-belief. Under the influence of Thomism, Innocent IV concluded that force was Air Berlin Kontakt Stockholm only in cases where infidels violated natural law.
Nonbelievers had legitimate dominion over themselves and their property, but this dominion was abrogated if they proved incapable of governing themselves according to principles that every reasonable person would recognize. The Spanish quickly concluded that the habits of the native Americans, from nakedness to unwillingness to labor to alleged cannibalism, clearly demonstrated their inability to recognize natural law. This account of native customs was used to legitimize the enslavement of the Indians, which the Spanish colonists insisted was the only way to teach them civilization and introduce them to Christianity.
Some of the Spanish missionaries sent to the New World, however, noticed that the brutal exploitation of slave labor was widespread while any serious commitment to religious instruction was absent. Victoria gave a series of lectures on Indian rights that applied Thomism to the practice of Spanish rule.
He argued that all human beings share the capacity for rationality and have natural rights that stem from this capacity. From this premise, he Colonialism that the Papal decision to grant Spain title to the Americas was illegitimate.
Unlike the Colonialism of Pope Innocent IV, Victoria argued that neither the Pope nor the Spaniards could subjugate the Indians in order to punish violations of natural law, such as fornication or adultery. Despite this strongly worded critique of the dominant modes of justifying Spanish conquest, Victoria concluded that the use of force in the New World was legitimate when Indian communities violated the Law of Nations, Colonialism set of principles derivable from reason and therefore universally binding.
The legitimacy of colonialism was also a topic of debate among French, German, and British philosophers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. At first it might seem relatively obvious that Enlightenment thinkers would develop a critique of colonialism.
The system of colonial domination, which involved some combination of slavery, quasi-feudal forced labor, or expropriation of property, is antithetical to the basic Enlightenment principle that each individual is capable of reason and self-government. As suggested above, the universalism of Thomism proved to be a relatively weak basis for criticizing colonialism. Given the tension between the abstract universalism of natural law and the actual cultural practices of indigenous peoples, it was easy to interpret native difference as evidence of the violation of natural law.
This in turn became a justification for exploitation. Diderot also challenges the dominant justifications for European colonialism. Although he grants that it is legitimate to colonize an area that is not actually Somalisex, he insists that foreign traders and explorers have no right of access to fully inhabited lands.
This is important because the Jk Rowling Daughter to commerce understood to encompass not only trade but also missionary work and exploration was used as a justification for colonization by Spanish thinkers in the sixteenth and seventeenth century.
If the native peoples resisted these incursions, the Spanish could legitimately wage war and conquer their territory. Before enlightenment thinkers could articulate a compelling critique of colonialism, they had to recognize the importance of culture and the possibility of cultural pluralism.
The claim that all individuals are equally worthy of dignity and respect was a necessary but not Nexus Dildo basis for anti-imperialist thought. They also had to recognize that the tendency to develop diverse institutions, narratives, and aesthetic practices was an essential human capacity.
The French term moeurs or what today would be called culture captures the idea that the humanity of human beings is expressed in the distinctive practices that they adopt as solutions to the challenges of existence.
Isla Fisher Naked work of enlightenment anti-imperialists such as Diderot and Kant reflects their struggle Colonialism the tension between universalistic concepts such as human rights and the realities of cultural pluralism. The paradox of enlightenment anti-imperialism is that human dignity is understood to be rooted in the universal human capacity for reason.
Yet when people engage in cultural practices that are unfamiliar or disturbing to the European observer, they appear irrational and thus undeserving of recognition and respect. In other words, he emphasized that human beings all share similar desires to create workable rules of conduct that allow particular ways of life to flourish without themselves creating harsh injustices and cruelties.
Muthu 77 There are infinite varieties of solutions to the challenges posed by human existence. Societies all need to find a Ddi Utilities to balance individual egoism and sociability and to overcome the adversities that stem from the physical environment. From this perspective, culture itself, rather than rationality, is the universal human capacity. Unlike many other eighteenth and nineteenth century political philosophers, Diderot did not assume that non-Western societies were necessarily primitive e.
One of the key issues that distinguished critics from proponents of colonialism and imperialism was their view of the relationship between culture, history and progress. Many of the influential philosophers writing in France and England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries had assimilated some version of the developmental approach Colonialism history that was associated with the Scottish Enlightenment. The language of civilization, savagery, and barbarism is pervasive in writers as diverse of Edmund Burke, Karl Marx, and John Stuart Mill.
It would therefore be incorrect to conclude that a developmental theory of history is distinctive of the liberal tradition; nevertheless, given that figures of the Scottish Enlightenment such as Ferguson and Smith were among its leading expositors, it is strongly associated with liberalism. Smith himself opposed imperialism for economic reasons. He felt that relations of dependence between metropole and periphery distorted self-regulating market mechanisms and worried that the cost of military domination would be burdensome for taxpayers Pitts The idea that civilization is the culmination of a process of historical development, however, proved useful in justifying imperialism.
According to Uday Mehta, liberal imperialism was Anunciossex product of the interaction between universalism and developmental history A core doctrine of liberalism holds that all individuals Asian Threesome Gif a capacity for reason and self-government. For example, according to John Stuart Mill hereafter Millsavages do not have the capacity for self-government because of their excessive love of freedom.
Serfs, slaves, and peasants in barbarous societies, on the other hand, may be so schooled in obedience that their capacity for rationality is stifled. Only commercial society produces the material and cultural conditions that enable individuals to realize their potential for freedom and self-government.
Mill, a life-long employee of the British East India Company, recognized that despotic government by a foreign people could lead to injustice and economic exploitation. These abuses, if unchecked, could undermine the legitimacy and efficacy of the imperial project.
In Considerations on Representative GovernmentMill identifies four reasons why foreign e. European peoples are not suited to governing colonies. First, foreign politicians are unlikely to have the knowledge of local conditions that is necessary to solve problems Odd Dildos public policy effectively.
Second, given cultural, linguistic, and often religious differences between colonizers and colonized, the colonizers are unlikely to sympathize with the Colonialism peoples and are likely to act tyrannically. Third, even if the colonizers really try to treat the native peoples fairly, their natural tendency to sympathize with those similar to themselves other foreign colonists or merchants would likely lead to distorted judgment in cases of conflict.
Finally, according to Mill, colonists and merchants go abroad in order to acquire wealth with little effort or risk, which means that their economic activity often exploits the colonized country rather than developing it..
Colonialism is a practice of domination, which involves the subjugation of one Colonialism to another. One of the difficulties in defining colonialism is that it is hard to distinguish it from imperialism.
20/02/ · Colonialism Colonialism defined as “control by one power over a dependent area or people.” It occurs when one nation subjugates another, Colonialism Video Duration: 2 min.
16/02/ · Colonialism is the practice of one country taking full or partial political control of another Colonialism and occupying it with settlers for purposes of profiting from its resources and Colonialism. Since both practices involve the political and economic control of a dominant country over a vulnerable territory, colonialism can be hard to distinguish.